Immigrant Oral Histories

Woonspe Ake Yamni: Uŋk Verbs


Awadi Awadi, I step on ___.
Ayadi Ayadi, You step on ___.
Adi Adi, S/He/It steps on __.
Uŋkadi Uŋkadi, You and I step on _.
Uŋkadipi Uŋkadipi, We step on ___.
Ayadipi Ayadipi, You all step on __.
Adipi Adipi, They step on __.


Owawa Owawa, I write.
Oyawa Oyawa, You write.
Owa Owa, S/He/It writes.
Uŋkowa Uŋkowa, You and I write.
Uŋkowapi Uŋkowapi, We write.
Oyawapi Oyawapi, You all write.
Owapi Owapi, They write.


Awahi Awahi, I bring ___.
Ayahi Ayahi, You bring ___.
Ahi Ahi, S/He/It brings __.
Uŋkahi Uŋkahi, You and I bring __.
Uŋkahipi Uŋkahipi, We bring __.
Ayahipi Ayahipi, You all bring ___.
Ahipi Ahipi, They bring __.
Ai Ai, S/He/It arrives there (with something)
Akaŝtaŋ Akaŝtaŋ, S/He/It pours on to Awakaŝtaŋ
Aki Aki, S/He/It arrive home there (with something)
I I, S/He/It arrives
Icu Icu, S/He/It takes or receives (something)
Ihuŋni Ihuŋni, S/He/It finishes, ends, or concludes/arrives at
O O, S/He/It shoots and hits (something)
Ode Ode, S/He/It looks for (something)
Ohnaka Ohnaka, S/He/It puts (something) inside
Okada Okada, It lays eggs, or S/He scatters, spreads
Okaŝtaŋ Okaŝtaŋ, S/He/It pours
Okihi Okihi, S/He/It is able to accomplish
Okiwa Okiwa, S/He/It writes his own
U U, S/He/It comes
, S/He/It is

New Nouns

Wi´tka Wi´tka, egg
Su Su, seed or grain
Asaŋ´pi Asaŋ´pi, milk
Haŋpi Haŋpi, juice
Caŋpa´ Caŋpa´, chokecherry
Caŋo´hnaka Caŋo´hnaka, trunk or box
Wo´żuha Wo´żuha, empty bag or sack
Wo´żuhadaŋ Wo´żuhadaŋ, small bag
Owe´ Owe´, footprint, track, or trail
Hoĥpi´ Hoĥpi´, nest

Selected U.S.-Dakota War of 1862 commemoration projects and programs are made possible by the Legacy Amendment's Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund, through the vote of Minnesotans on November 4, 2008.