Miners, Old Chisholm Mine
In the early 20th century, the Iron Range in northern Minnesota boomed. Thousands of immigrants moved to places like Hibbing and Chisholm to take jobs in the iron mines, which was dangerous, low-paying work. After 1900, many of these immigrants were from eastern European countries such as Italy, Croatia and Poland. Mining companies often took advantage of these immigrants, who often did not speak English and had little money. In the decade just before World War I, two strikes erupted on the Mesabi Iron Range: in 1907 and 1916. After the 1916 strike, many mining companies increased pay and set an eight-hour workday.
In this image of miners from the Chisholm Mine, two of the men are Giovanni Costanzi and Giacondo Costanzi. They were likely Italian immigrants, but it is unknown if they were related.