Forests, Fields, and the Falls: Glossary

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adulterations (noun): Something fake that is being presented as pure, but has actually had something else added to it.

article (noun): An object.

brisk (adjective): Lively, full of activity.

bushels (noun): A measure that contains eight gallons.

calamity (noun): An event resulting in great loss.

cant hook (noun): Tool used to grip and roll logs.

carriage (noun): A part of the machinary that wheeled the log forward toward the saw.

catwalk (noun): An elevated walkway.

chiefly (adverb): Mainly, or almost entirely.

churned (verb): Agitated the cream rapidly and repetitively with a rocking motion to make butter.

claim (noun): A demand of ownership for previously unowned land (e.g. in the gold rush, oil rush).

coaxed (verb): Persuaded.

commenced (verb): Began, started.

commercial (adjective): Of or pertaining to commerce or business.

conditions (noun): Situation or state of being. In this case, the farming conditions refers to the success of farmers who were now able to make more money from their wheat.

contents (noun): The flour which is contained within it.

creep (verb): To move slowly with the abdomen close to the ground, crawl.

crooks (noun): A person who steals, lies, cheats, or does other dishonest or illegal things.

delicate (adjective): Easily damaged or requiring careful handling.

demand (noun): A need or request.

deserted (adjective): Abandoned.

double bitted axe (noun): An axe that had two sharp edges for chopping.

drive (noun): An act of moving logs forward to be captured.

endowed (adjective): To be furnished with something naturally.

enterprising (adjective): Being smart about business deals.

excepting (preposition): With the exception of.

exhausted (adjective): Depleted; used up.

feat (noun): A relatively rare or difficult accomplishment.

fire-barn (noun): Fire station where fire engines are kept.

frauds (noun): Someone using a false identity.

harness (verb): To place a harness on animals; to tie up or restrain.

heap (noun): A pile.

hearty (adjective): Exhibiting strength; sound; healthy; firm; not weak.

homestead (noun): A house together with surrounding land and buildings, especially on a farm.

ignited (verb): Lit on fire.

immense (adjective): Gigantic, very large.

invigorating (adjective): Giving strength or energy.

lame (adjective): Moving with pain or difficulty on account of injury or sickness.

landing (noun): A place on a shoreline where a boat lands.

mill hands (noun): The workers in a mill.

narrow-gauge trucks (noun): Railroad tracks that were close together.

nozzles (noun): Short tubes, usually tapering, at the end of a hose.

nuisance (noun): A minor annoyance or bother.

obliterated (verb): Wiped out, or destroyed completely.

outlet (noun): A river that runs out of a lake.

poured (verb): Flowed like a stream.

powerhouse (noun): Any source of power, energy, or strength.

printing press (noun): A mechanical device used for printing text or images repeatedly.

pulsates (verb): Vibrates or beats rhythmically.

regarded (verb): Looked at with respect and admiration.

rollways (noun): A path where logs were rolled into the river.

rubble (noun): The broken remains.

salt pork (noun): Pork cured in salt; white bacon.

save (conjunction): Except for.

sawyer (noun): One who saws timber, especially in a sawpit.

shams (noun): Something fake, not real.

shanty (noun): A roughly-built hut or cabin.

shotgun (noun): The front passenger seat in a vehicle, next to the driver; so called because the position of the shotgun-armed guard on a horse-drawn stage-coach, wagon train, or gold transport was next to the driver on a forward-mounted bench seat.

skimmed milk (verb): Removed the cream from the milk.

sluiceways (noun): A man-made channel designed to redirect excess water.

sod house (noun): A house made from the top layer of soil which is filled with the roots of grass.

staple (noun): A basic or essential supply.

subsided (verb): Worn off.

tap (verb): To deplete.

threshed (adjective): Separated the grain from the straw or husks(chaff) by mechanical beating, with a flail or machinery.

throbbed (verb): To pulse with a steady rhythm.

thrumming (noun): The sound or action of something that hums or vibrates.

timber (noun): Trees in a forest regarded as a source of wood.

towering (adjective): Very tall.

yield (noun): A product; the quantity of something produced.


Standard citation for all glossary terms: Wiktionary, (accessed 2016).

© (2016) Minnesota Historical Society

If any modifications were made to this definition, these changes are released under CC-BY-SA. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this definition under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.